It is a well-known fact that in Italy around the Etna volcano, every farmer enjoys a rich and high-quality production, because of the soils and their composition. This is due to the volcanic deposits accumulated in it during the activation of the volcano.
How do volcanic rocks affect plants?
Unlike standard foliar fertilizers that feed plants, the composition of volcanic rocks is of natural origin. This allows their maximum absorption and accumulation in stock at the cellular level, even in the presence of stress factors. They directly affect photosynthesis, the vital functions of plants and significantly increase their immune response in the presence of biotic and abiotic stress. This makes the plants less subservient to climatic and soil conditions.
One of the characteristics of volcanic rocks is that they are rich in carbonates. For example, calcium carbonate is a compound between calcium oxide and NATURALLY ASSOCIATED CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2), which accumulates at the cellular level and directly affects photosynthesis, even in hot and dry periods. The stock of carbon dioxide at the cellular level stimulates plants in the following ways:
- Accelerated photosynthesis and extended vegetation period – When the temperature rises above 28 degrees, the level of photosynthesis drops drastically. This is because at the heated surface CO2 rises above and the plant is subjected to heat stress. The stock of carbon dioxide at the cellular level allows plants to maintain an optimal level of photosynthesis even under these conditions.
- The stock of CO2 leads to increased synthesis of glucose and thickening of internal plant juices. This leads to a serious tolerance to frostbite and frost and protects the plants from stress during the large spring temperature amplitudes.
- Stomatal regulation – when plants are stocked with carbon dioxide, they keep their stomata closed, which leads to reduced moisture transpiration and, respectively, strong drought tolerance.
- Fungistatic effect – The maximally closed stomata and the stock of the second main element in Panamin – the silicon dioxide, form a mechanical barrier for fungal pathogens, which makes it difficult for them to penetrate into plants.
SILICON (Si) is the second most common element on our planet, which predominates in the volcanic rock Zeolite and is extremely beneficial to both plants and humans. It supports the transport of nutrients from the root to the leaves and greatly increases their tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress. It is a strong antiseptic and a good helper in the fight against fungal pathogens, blocks heavy metals in the soil and eliminates toxins. Silicon has a positive influence on the strengthening of cell walls and mechanical resistance by improving the structure of plant tissues. Produces stronger stems with more erect leaves. Increases nutrient absorption. The reserve of Si in plant tissues reduces the rate of transpiration, resistance to drought and stress from high temperatures, reduces salt balance by inhibiting sodium absorption.
The stocking up of Silicon dioxide (SiO2) leads to hardening of the upper cuticle layer and thickening of trichomes (fine hairs on the surface of plants). As a result, some types of enemies recognize it as an unfavorable environment and fly away. The formed silicon cuticle layer serves as a barrier against the penetration of pathogens. Silicon helps protect against a new attack – systemic acquired resistance.
CALCIUM and MAGNESIUM in tandem in the fight against stress.
- Calcium and magnesium further increase tolerance to abiotic stress. The two elements have a synergistic effect on the assimilation of macronutrients. They increase the quality, quantity and shelf life of the produce.
- Calcium is a vitally necessary nutrient that improves the health status of crops. Strengthens cell walls, improves resistance to mechanical damage, drought, waterlogging, low and high temperatures, diseases and enemies.
- Magnesium has a positive effect on photosynthesis, a component of chlorophyll, an activator of enzymes and helps the transport and absorption of nutrients in the soil.
Soil influence of Panamin:
The volcanic rock mix improves the mechanical composition, permeability and salt balance of the soil and optimizes the pH level in both directions. If we have alkaline and acid spots in a field, calcium carbonate is able to optimize its pH level. Equal amounts of calcium oxide and carbon dioxide in it affect the pH by interacting with each other. When the pH is high, carbon dioxide lowers it to the zone of influence of calcium oxide. And when it’s low, calcium oxide raises it to a zone of carbon dioxide influence. And thus the pH remains optimal.
What is unique about Panamin is that the mix of micronized volcanic rocks makes it an excellent protector of yield potential and contributes to the normal development of crops under the increasingly frequent stress factors of climate change.